Now come the Irish…
Ever since Norman* rule in the 11th century, the English had held a special hatred of Irish people. During the TAST period, English adventurers and soldiers use Ireland to hone their thieving & killing skills. Slavers, since they had to pass Ireland to get to the Americas, stopped off to collect a few extra slaves along the way. In fact, the headright system gained so much popularity it became instrumental in encouraging Irish to emigrate!
* For those who don’t know, Normans were the mixed descendants of native Frankish (French), Gallo-Romans and Norse invaders of France.
Note that not all emigrants from Ireland were Irish. Some were Scotch-Irish (Scottish settlers in Ulster) who’d been driven out because of religious dissent. Upon arriving in the Americas they were welcomed in Delaware, Pennsylvania and other colonies, especially after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660. Considering Scotland was Protestant at the time, this is no surprise. However, Quakers, Presbyterians & Catholics alike were booted out of Ireland. Not so much by Henry VIII as he didn’t bother with the place too much, more by Elizabeth I.
Yes, that Elizabeth with the skunk breath.
English & Norman hatred of Irish stemmed from a belief that they were savage, backward, uncivilised, all of that. Ironically though, invaders (English, Norman, Scottish, Welsh, even Vikings) often ended up adopting Irish culture & never going back!
In 1166 the deposed King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, had begged the Norman army to help him get his throne back. Then in 1171, Henry II came along and established the Pale, a bridgehead stretching from Dublin to Drogheda. The name Pale was from Latin palus, meaning stake. This was Anglo-Norman aristocracy “staking” a claiming to Ireland. Not too far removed from what the English were now doing 500 years later.
After building the Pale, Welsh cleric Giraldus Cambrensis wrote extensively on what he considered to be Irish vices: blasphemy, laziness, treachery, incest, cannibalism and more. That’s where all the hatred started from, one man’s propaganda. It got so bad that in 1278, 2 Anglo-Norman men were charged with raping Margaret O’Rorke. Because she was Irish, the 2 were deemed not guilty. They were even forbidden from living by their own laws; noblemen made a complaint to the Pope how English people couldn’t be punished for killing Irish.
Needless to say, rebellions started. The first serious one was the Nine Years War of 1594. Then earl of Tyrone Hugh O’Neill was pissed off at the rapidly increasing pace of the plantations’ growth, but in 1603 he surrendered to James I. This meant Ireland became a free-for-all to English planters, which quickly reduced it to the same shithole England was.
Problem: loads of wandering dispossessed people.
Solution: KICK THE BASTARDS OUT OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY!!!
During the first arrival of English in the Caribbean (St. Christopher, now known as St. Kitts) Captain Thomas Warner, his wife, son and a few other men claimed the island for King Jamie. Of course they gave no fucks about the Kalinagos who’d already invaded the native Arawaks to get there. But they had to deal with them still.
(Note: Warner was a staunch Puritan. In other words, trouble)
Warner had a wary relationship with chief Ouboutou Tegremante, in which he set up a colony in 2 years, went back home for more planters, got Jamie’s warrant to fetch more Irish free-willers, and set them to work slashing & burning to make space for their own crops. And tobacco.
In the mid-1600s, Capt Matthew Cradock (first governor of Massachusetts Bay Company, and Puritan) charged his agent Thomas Anthony the duty to round up more slaves. Which he did, after competition with an Amsterdam ship and getting imprisoned for knavery in Kinsale. That only lasted a few days, though, ’cause he decided to free 2 slaves.
Then he and Cradock were off!
Meanwhile, Charles I fell out with Parliament, and Irish Catholics sought to use that to their advantage. In Ulster (the centre of another rebellion), rebels killed 4000 Protestant invaders and left 800 to die by starvation. News got back to England, rebellions spread again, Parliament passed an act in 1642 to fund an army to finish the Irish off once and for all. Yes, once and for all. This was not merely invasion, this was an ethnic cleansing. England wanted to free up 2.5 million acres of Irish land and replace Irish people with English wholesale!
Cromwell (yes, that Cromwell) waged all-out war on Ireland in 1649, the same year England brought in a new policy to make larger-scale transportations. Cromwell marched on Drogheda to advance on Ulster, slaughtering officers, soldiers, priests and friars on sight. This resulted in 150 Protestant deaths vs. 3500 Droghedan deaths, with many of the survivors taken as slaves to the Caribbean, predominantly Barbados. That’s why the Bajan accent is so similar to Irish, for anyone familiar with it. This became so common that being dumped in the Caribbean came to be known as being “Barbadosed“.
This was a nice bit of synchronicity for England: by deporting even more Irish out they had more land to fill up with themselves, and they could keep the colonies happy by giving them more slaves! Genius! Transportation wasn’t the only method they used to get rid of the Irish. England also exiled them to random other parts of Europe (reaching its peak in 1652-3), and/or let them starve to death.
1st April 1653: Cromwell’s Council of State authorised John Clotworthy to transport another 500 Irish. However, he gave him a special notice – make sure they’re IRISH and NOT Anglo-Normans or Old English! This was in response to such an error; some Anglo-Norman women were once taken to the Caribbean by accident. Oops! At the end of the Confederate War that same year, orphans and widows were also shipped off to work for or marry planters.
By the 1650s, hundreds of thousands of Irish people disappeared from Ireland in just a few decades, which resulted in wolves making a comeback! Some of the remaining people tried to fight back against English rule, but all failed. Stranglehold laws were put in place too; any Catholics who refused to attend Protestant churches were fined, and if they couldn’t pay up…
Of course, the Irish who’d already been enslaved fared no better. Even in the colonies their religion and language were banned. This meant they had to practice their faith in secret. None of the subjugation changed what English thought of them though; they became outright afraid of Irish. So much so that Acts were passed to forbid them being taken to Massachusetts (which no-one paid attention to).
In 1658, English slaves’ minimum service time was extended from 4 to 5 years, and Irish slaves from 5 to 6. But two years later at the Restoration of the English Monarchy that extension was repealed because it discouraged free-willers from going. Then in 1688 in Massachusetts, allegations of demonic possessions ran riot! Minister of Boston’s North Church, Cotton Mather claimed devils were everywhere! Illnesses in children were seen as witchcraft, and of course where there’s witchcraft there’s a witch.
An elderly Irishwoman, Goodwife Ann “Goody” Glover, to be exact. The court knew she was guilty because she was unable to recite the Lord’s Prayer in English! Ignore the fact she couldn’t speak English at all, and ignore that she could say the prayer in Irish & Latin! Apparently they also found dolls in her house. She was a witch therefore…
Back to Part 8
On to Part 10